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Aerodynamics is the way air moves around the object. Anything that moves through air reacts to aerodynamics. The word is derived from two Greek words; aerios which mean air and dynamis which mean force. It is the study of forces and the resulting motion of objects through the air.
Aerodynamics is the branch of dynamics that is concerned with the study of the motion of air, especially when it interacts with a solid object. It is basically a branch of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics which shares many aspects of aerodynamics theory.
The aerodynamics assignment help introduces students with the fundamental knowledge for understanding various aspects of aerodynamics which includes its principle, nature, performance, stability, control, and applications. It also enables students to apply practical methods in calculating the aerodynamic forces. Thus, having a formula-based understanding in this field of study helps students with their assignments and professional career.
The major application of Aerodynamics is in the designing of flights and aircraft. However, automobile and train bodies also apply its principles in their designs. The aerodynamics results that fall under different categories are observed on the basis of following elements:
Aerodynamics normally deals with the calculation of forces to understand the motion of air (flow field) around the solid body. When a body moves in the air, a pressure and friction are produced on the body. The pressure acts normal to the surface and friction acts tangentially to the surface of the body. The resultant force is the sum of pressure and friction forces. The area at which the resultant forces act on the body is known as the center of the pressure. The aerodynamics forces are because of the pressure and friction stress distribution over the body surface.
There are four basic forces in aerodynamics. These include:
Lift- Lift is a push which lets something move up. It is an aerodynamic force at acts through the air at the right angle to the direction of motion of the object. It is produced when the moving object and the fluid interacts. This interaction leads to differences in the pressure between the upper surface and the lower surface of the object. The pressure produces a force that sustains the object against fall due to gravity. The lift generally includes three theories; Bernoulli's principle, Coanda effect and Newton's third law of motion.
Weight- Everything on earth has weight. This force is directed from gravity that pulls down objects. Weight is a gravity force which acts in the downward direction towards the center of the earth. It determines the characteristics of objects. The weight of an object determines and controls the level of push that needs to be imposed on that object.
Drag- Drag is a force that tries to slow down the object. It makes it difficult for the object to move. Drag is an aerodynamic force that resists the motion of the object through the fluid. The fluid causes more drag than air. The level of drag also depends upon the shape and size of an object. Round and narrow surfaces usually have a less amount of drag than flat and wide surfaces. The drag is generated by front and rear pressure difference, shearing between fluid and solid surface, gas compression level at high speed and residual lift components produced by 3D flow rotation.
Thrust - It is a push that is opposite of drag which moves something forward. Thrust is an aerodynamic force that acts in the direction of motion. It is produced by engines which transfer energy into the flow. The energy flows in the form of increased fluid momentum. The object must have more thrust than drag in order to keep moving forward.
Aerodynamics is a branch of study that deals with the designing of aircraft, automobiles, and trains to minimize the effects of forces on the motion of objects. If these bodies have an aerodynamic design or shape, it moves faster and consumes less fuel than others because the air passes over it more easily. Thus aerodynamics comes with certain advantages.
Aerodynamics is important with its number of application in various fields. Some of the fields are mentioned below:
Aerodynamics in Aircraft- Aerodynamics forces are used to control an aircraft in flight. When the airplane is in level flight at a static speed, the aircraft generates thrust with a propeller or a jet engine which are enough to counteract the aerodynamic drag force. It also produces the upward force in level flight to overcome the downward force caused by gravity.
Aerodynamics in Automobiles- Automobiles use aerodynamics body shapes to increase engine efficiency and speed. Automotive experts use computer simulation and wind-tunnel experiments to fine-tune the aerodynamics of automobiles so that they general required amount of downward forces to the wheels with the minimum amount of drag forces.
Aerodynamics in Sailing- In sailing, aerodynamics study is extensively applied in the prediction of forces and moments. It is also used in designing mechanical components like hard drive heads.
Aerodynamics in Structural Engineering- Aerodynamics and specifically aero-elasticity is very critical and widely used to calculate wind loads in the design of buildings and bridges.
Aerodynamics in Urban Planning- Town planners and designers use urban aerodynamics to improve the comfort level in outdoor spaces. It helps them to create urban microclimates and to reduce the effect of urban population.
Aerodynamics in the Study of Ecosystem- The study of environmental aerodynamics helps in identifying the ways atmospheric circulation and flight mechanics affect ecosystems. Additionally, aerodynamics is helpful in determining the wind turbine design and used as a part of numerical weather prediction.
Aerodynamics problems are determined by the flow environment or flow properties including flow speed, viscosity, and compressibility.
The flow environment-
External Aerodynamics- It is the study of flow that deals with the flow of air around the solid bodies of various shapes. For instance, evaluation of the lift and drag or the shock waves of airplanes.
Internal Aerodynamics- The study deals with the flow of air through the passages in solid bodies. For instance, it takes in the examination of airflow by a jet engine or by an air conditioning pipe.
The flow properties-
Flow Speed- The problem can be classified by determining if the flow speed is below, above or near the speed of sound. The flow speed is characterized by taking into consideration the following measure:
Viscosity- The problems are influenced by the effect of flows. The flows that have very small viscous effects on the solution are called inviscid flows whereas the flows for which viscosity cannot be ignored are called viscous flows.
Compressibility- Compressibility is an examination of the amount of change of density in the problem. This property can be measured according to the following factors:
Students pursuing aerodynamics study must acquire an excellent hold on the following topics to excel in the field with the best grades and the practical skills.
|Airfoils and Wings for Aerodynamics||Fluid Mechanic Concepts|
|Vector Kinematics of a Fluid Element||Parameter Sensitivity|
|Subsonic Airflow||Viscous Fluid|
|Supersonic and Hypersonic Airflow Theory||Newtonian Fluid Method|
|Aircraft Flight and Spacecraft Dynamics||Trim and Static Stability|
|Introduction to Potential Flow Theory||Stability Derivatives|
|Longitudinal and Lateral-directional Motions||Physical Effects of the Wings on Aircraft Motion|
|Control Techniques for Flight Vehicle Stabilization||Time and Frequency Analysis of Control System|
|Human-pilot Models with Applications||Pilot-in-the-loop Controls|
|Momentum Theory||Gas Dynamics|
|Fundamentals of Compressible Flow||Normal and Oblique Shocks|
Choosing an optimum career path as per the interest area is utmost important for students who have been qualified in aerodynamics subject. Having proper information of the eligibility criteria and the roles and responsibilities of the entitled positions gives them a clear vision to opt the desired career profession. With proficiency in the subject and practical experience, students can be entitled to various career positions as described below:
Aerodynamic Engineer- Aerodynamics Engineer is one who is responsible for designing, constructing and testing aircraft, missiles, automobiles and spacecraft. They propose basic and applied research to identify the adaptability of materials and equipment to the design and manufacture of aerospace products and certain vehicles.
Aerodynamicist- An aerodynamicist is an engineer who performs research and analysis related to aerodynamics, thermodynamics, aerothermodynamics and aero-physics designs and concepts in order to examine their potential suitability to aerospace products and various vehicles. They are responsible for performing engineering duties in the design, development, and testing of these vehicles which further helps in maximizing their performance.
Aeronautical Engineer- Aeronautical engineer is responsible for researching, designing, developing, maintaining, testing and determining the performance of both civil and military aircraft that exists within the earth's atmosphere.
Aero Software Engineer- The core responsibility of the person is to design, develop, integrate and test high scalable aerodynamics software models for real-time simulation training applications. He/she is also responsible for troubleshooting and fixing present software inefficiencies in engines, flight controls, motion and aircraft systems.
In addition to the above-described career paths, there is various other career option for Aerodynamics scholars as Mechanical Engineer, Aerodynamics Research and Technology Engineer, Fluid Mechanical Analyst, Aerospace Engineer, Aerodynamics Product Engineer, Turbo Machinery Engineer, and lots more.
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